Document Type : Research Paper





One of long-standing and widespread theme in human thought is belief in evil. From the very beginning of existence, when the idea of destruction’s fear penetrated in human mind, man became a believer in the idea of evil as the source of destruction. but the image and description of evil in human minds throughout history has been heterogeneous and diverse, and this diversity has shown the multiplicity of the roots of the belief in this idea, and therefore, researchers are looking for the root of Evil thoughts in religions and beliefs. one of important ancient religions, due to its breadth and diversity of beliefs, is Manichaeism. theme of the myth of Satan is one of attractive description among the beliefs and motifs that it has been used in Manichaean religion, which its roots has not been well researched. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to rediscover of the roots of imagination and the image of the devil in Manichaean religion. This study, based on the analytical and descriptive approach of first-hand Manichaean, Gnostic and Mesopotamian sources, seeks to examine the roots and foundations of the construction of the image of Satan in Gnostic beliefs. The results of this research show that the themes, concepts and image of the devil in this religion have a gnostic and Zurvanite root. Also, Gnostic beliefs are rooted in Zurvanism imagery of the devil, as well as Zurvanite motifs and images are rooted in ancient Mesopotamian myths.


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