Journal of history of Iran)

Document Type : review paper


The appearance of modern civilization in Europe and the diffusion of this modern civilization through colonialism beyond the European border imposed modernization on eastern societies including Iran. However, this compelled modernization led to a mixed and dual civilization instead of a newly established one. This deficiency could not be resolved without voluntary modernization and a complete transfer of new civilization and it was not possible to transfer the new civilization without a specified theory and practical plan and pattern. The findings of this research show that Amir Kabir had a mental image and conception of the totality of a new civilization and his modernization efforts had been started based on a specific plan and pattern both theoretical and practical and his main goal was to establish a new civilization. Therefore, the failure of his efforts was not because of conceptual and cognitional deficiencies and problems of a new civilization, but it was because of the opposition and conquest of the defenders of the status quo and current affairs and also because of the opposition to modernization and an all aspects of modernization.