Kurds of Fars and Khuzestan were the most important ethnic groups, residing in the southwest Iran during the early Islamic centuries. This group that had a tribal nomadic life resisted against Muslims throughout the Islamic conquest era and even established an integrated and united community to deny the Muslims’ progress, and prevent the fall of the inner provinces of Iran. The perseverance and stability of their resistance and struggle continued from the beginning of the Muslims’ conquests in Khuzestan and Fars, up to the end of the rule of the Righteous (Rashedun) Caliphs. They even preserved their influence on the socio-political history of the west and southwest Iran throughout the early Islamic centuries. This article, using an analytical approach, aims to explore and explain the role of Fars and Khuzestan Kurds, on the basis of a historical research method, and then raise this question: Why did Fars and Khuzestan Kurds, despite their dissatisfaction with the Sassanid’s class distinctions, resist against the Arabs and what role did they play in the resistance against the Muslims? On the basis of the little information that the sources provide, it is clarified that the Kurds of Fars and Khuzestan Provinces opposed the Muslims for centuries, but gradually gave up, while making a lot of endeavor to maintain their precedent cultural identity as much as possible. The new living conditions and the presence of the new Arab and Iranian rulers under the caliphate imposed upon them a new culture and faith - which were different from the real Islam in some cases.