Journal of history of Iran)

Document Type : review paper


Since 31 (A.H) that the first Arab conquerors entered Khorasan state until the year 86 (A.H) that Ghotaybah Ibn Muslem Baheli was appointed as the governor on behalf of Hajaj Ibn Yoosef Thaghafi in Khorasan, the Arabs had ruled over the Khorasan, but they did not succeed in ruling over the Oxus. All of the endeavors that have been made up to this period were nothing except one or two short-time attacks by Obaydollah Ibn Ziyad and Saeed Ibn Othman, that even some researchers have some serious doubt about it. Local governments have encompassed (city states) of Takharestan, Choghanian, Bokhara, Samarghand, Kharazm, Chach and Farghaneh with different multi-cultural situations, and religions such as Buddhist, Zoroastrian, Manichean, Nastoari, and Jewish. Head farmers and merchants were the most powerful strata in this society. The main focus of this article—considering the geographic, cultural and social characteristic of Transoxiana—is to determine which military strategy has been applied by the Arabs in the conquest of this area. This research applies the method of historical analysis and is based upon the original and first-hand scripts and documents. The findings of this research prove this important point that Hajaj and Ghotaybeh had different multi-lateral military strategy accompanied by political, social, cultural and economical dimensions; and during one decade of thoughtful politics of Hajaj and also the military power of Ghotaybah they could provide the necessary conditions to stabilize the Islamic sovereignty and the dominance of Muslim Arabs over Transoxiana.