One of the most important debates that researchers in different fields of study have dealt with is to uncover contemporary cultural currents and to study their emergence and development. Such currents have drastically affected the basic policy of any society and the directions political, social and economical developments might take. The present article seeks to examine Iranian society’s means of familiarity with western culture and thought, the emergence of new currents and their relation to the ancient ones through carrying out an in-depth historical analysis and making use of historical references and archives. Major findings of this study bear testimony to the fact that it was the importation of new thoughts that led to the emergence of new currents whose most significant feature was their opposition to and negation of ancient Iranian currents. Notwithstanding, one can observe some particular tendencies for consonance and coexistence among them.