Journal of history of Iran)

Document Type : review paper


In the 19th century، Iranian and Ottoman statesmen and intellectuals presented their governments with certain proposals for progress. They also made efforts to implement reforms in society. Although certain aspects of their proposals were implemented، the plan for reform did not proceed the way they had expected. For this reason، Fuad Pasha and Ali Pasha، two Ottoman reformers، presented their proposed reforms to the Ottoman Sultan in the form of political testaments towards the end of their lives – testaments which also became entangled with the history of Iran at the same time. On the one hand، it was proposed that Malkam had played a role in writing those testaments، and on the other hand، Mirza Yusuf Khan Mostashar Al-Dowleh later wrote a testament which was similar to that of Fuad Pasha. A comparative analysis of the text of the testaments، the possibility of Mirza Malkam’s involvement، and Fuad Pasha’s influence on Mostashar Al-Dowleh are the issues explored in the present article using an analytical methodology based on historical research.