After the dominance of Arabs in Iran in the early Islamic history, various types of resistances and oppositions occurred. The oppositions throughout the first few centuries of the Arab rule in Iran included political and armed confrontation against official authority, and more importantly theoretical research and debates to challenge Muslims. Furthermore, a group of Iranians who had converted to Islam, endeavored to penetrate into the political hierarchy of the Caliphate, and actively participated in cultural and scientific development of society all of which prevented the extinction of Iranian cultural presence in society. The main purpose of this article is to review of the relationship between the political power of influential Iranians in the hierarchy of political power of Caliphate and cultural development of society. This review proves that the extensive presence of Iranian influential households in the power structure of Abbasid Caliphate was the main cause for the establishment and progression of their cultural and scientific framework.