The aim of this survey is to reveal the differences between the traditional political attitudes of Iranian envoys and the modern diplomatic attitudes of Russian ambassadors in Transoxiana region. Bukhara logbook is a report of an Iranian envoy that has been dispatched to Bukhara by Mohammad Shah Qajar. The travelogue of Khorezmis is also a report of Reza Qoli Mirza Khan, envoy of Naseraddin Shah Qajar that has been dispatched to Khiva. Turkistan travel trip report is the report of Pashino who was the secret agent of Russia in Tashkent about his travelling to Transoxiana region; description of Central Asia of Kostenko that was the Russian military official in the region of Transoxiana. Each of the four historical texts belongs to the same historical period, that is, the thirteenth century AH in Transoxiana region, a short while before Russian military domination up to their invasion`s threshold in this region. In this survey the diplomatic attitude of two Iranian agents with two Russian agents has been evaluated according “Comparative” & “Content analysis” methods. The result of this survey expresses that the Russians seek sources, culture, society, religion, policy and customs secularly and they want to have maximum exploitation by all existed facilities and economic interests and through military domination to gain political control of a land while the Iranians were just making effort to keep the king`s magnificence and grandiosity and are just thinking about retaking lost cities and states and release their captives.