Journal of history of Iran)

Document Type : Research Paper


The idea of national unity in Berlin Circle of Intellectuals was created under the influence of Aryan bias in Germany. During the reign of Reza Shah, this idea resulted in the establishment of a vigorous nationalist government which intended to civilize Iranian society. It is very important to study the ideas of Berlin Circle and its effects upon the intellectual movements during the reign of Reza Shah. Berlin Circle as the most important Intellectual circle during the 1st World War, had an strong impact after on inttelectualism by introducing “Iranian” and “Iranian national spirit” concepts. The purpose of this study is to explore reasons and the conditions of such an important impact. Moreover, Berlin Circle and its influence on nationalist intellectuals of the reign of Reza Shah will be illuminated. Therefore, this descriptive-analytic study will firstly examine the influential factors on Berlin circle and then explore the circumstances which led to the emergence of Iranian nationalist intellectualism in the reign of Reza Shah, and conclude that Berlin Circle liberals borrowed Aryan superiority concept from Gobineau's thesis. This thesis was used by Germans to national power concentration and so used by Iranian intellectuals in the reign of Reza shah to provide suitable intellectual setting to develop of an potential national government of Reza shah in Iran. Intellectuals of the reign of Reza shah processed the national unity components and made some of them applicable during that new government.