There is a remarkable difference between the remained monuments in Transoxiana in northeast of Great Iran in the third to seventh century with the remained historical monuments in the central Iran in Sassanid era both in art themes & subjects matter and elements & bases. By comparison of elements and historical themes in these two parts of great Iran, some unwritten historical data can be obtained that can be used in historical analyzing of Iran before Islam. I this survey of comparative method, some outstanding and remarkable selective indexes of Transoxiana historical works have been evaluated with the Iranian Sassanid ones from artistic themes and elements. The findings of this survey shows that Transoxiana art coincided with the Sassanid era contained themes and Iranian popular culture and symbols and its elements and themes , has wide visual culture representation of local culture of peasants and merchants. Sassanid art does not have the concepts and cultural symbols and themes in its foundations focus on the visual representation of the Sassanid Empire. Art of Transoxiana has a balance and proportionality in representation of historical facts of Transoxiana society and the simplicity and non luxury, yet a pleasant fluency in artistic expression while Sassanid art is an imbalance in representation and appropriateness of historical facts of Sassanid society full of pomp and show and has a surprising exaggerating artistic expression.