The renovation and recreation of the Iranian «nationality»، on the basis of the archaic and nationalist-oriented attitudes، was one of the basic infrastructural strategies of the Pahlavi state. This strategy caused the formation of an important project، named «nation- building». Therefore، we can take for granted the Persian language، the Arian race، the Arian homeland، and historical background as the major elements of this project. The nation-building project was، undoubtedly، bound to the designation and application of different programs in political، social، economic، and cultural fields، of which، educational policies and preparation of textbooks، in need for the enrolling population، were the best and the most suitable ones. History، as a lesson، is of enough capacity to be used as an infrastructural thought-maker for the acceptance of the new project by young people. Thus، it was common that they would have paid special attention to «history» among all the other classical lessons. In this article، the writer aims to provide: firstly، the basic elements and various aspects of the nation-building project in the Pahlavi (the first era)، on the basis of archival and historical documents; secondly، a clear picture of the educational objectives، lesson materials، and contents of textbooks by studying the programs of the primary and secondary levels of education; and finally، the relations between the teaching of history and pushing forward the nation-building project.