نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه اراک

چکیده

تاریخ ایران با توجه به بافت مذهبی جامعه خود همواره با مقوله‌ای به نام «فتوا» پیوند خورده است. فتوا در نتیجۀ مجموعه‌ای از عوامل شکل گرفته و با کارکردهای متعدد و در عین حال متنوع، به عنوان یک عامل مهم در معادلات سیاسی روز مورد استفاده بوده است. فتوا همواره به عنوان عاملی حرکت بخش، پیامدها و نتایج شگرفی را در تاریخ ایران رقم زده است. در این میان تاریخ ایران عصر سلجوقی با توجه به شرایط سیاسی ـ اجتماعی، فتواهای بسیاری را در راستای تحقق اهداف خاص شاهد بود. نوشتار حاضر با رویکردی تحلیلی، ضمن سنخ شناسی فتواهای صادره در ایران این دوره، دریافته است که فتواها در کارکرد سیاسی خود در راستای مشروعیت‌بخشی، سرکوب مخالفان و حذف سیاسی رقباء، توجیه اقدامات سیاسی ـ مذهبی و نیز اغراض فرقه‌ای ـ مذهبی به کار می‌رفته است. متقابلاً دستورالعمل‌ها و سیاست نظارتی حکومت سلجوقی بر نهاد دین به طور اعم و مفتیان به طور اخص از این منظر قابل تفسیر خواهد بود. یافته‌های پژوهش خود الگویی از این مساله و در راستای نظریه پردازی علمی در تاریخ ایران است.چکیده لاتینIranian history—considering its religious structure—has always been linked to a concept called “Fatwa”. Fatwa has been formed as a result of many factors and as a multifunctional issue, and it has been used as an important factor in political discussions and decisions. Fatwa, as a moving social parameter, has created great results in Iranian history. In this regard, the history of Iran in the Saljuqid era, considering the political-social situations, has witnessed many Fatwas in reaching its particular aims. This paper, using an analytic approach while analyzing the issued Fatwas in Iran in this era, claims that Fatwas—in their political function—have been used for removing the opposition groups, as a political removal of other opponents, justification of political-religious actions and also for tribal-religious purposes. On the other side, the Saljuqid’s political control over religion in general and Muftis in particular, will be understandable in this perspective. Among the findings of the present study are patterns of this issue, which are in line with scientific theorization in Iranian history.Key words: Iran, Saljuqid, religion, intellectuals, fatwa, political function

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Fatwa and Its Political Function at Saljuqid Period

چکیده [English]

Iranian history—considering its religious structure—has always been linked to a concept called “Fatwa”. Fatwa has been formed as a result of many factors and as a multifunctional issue, and it has been used as an important factor in political discussions and decisions. Fatwa, as a moving social parameter, has created great results in Iranian history. In this regard, the history of Iran in the Saljuqid era, considering the political-social situations, has witnessed many Fatwas in reaching its particular aims. This paper, using an analytic approach while analyzing the issued Fatwas in Iran in this era, claims that Fatwas—in their political function—have been used for removing the opposition groups, as a political removal of other opponents, justification of political-religious actions and also for tribal-religious purposes. On the other side, the Saljuqid’s political control over religion in general and Muftis in particular, will be understandable in this perspective. Among the findings of the present study are patterns of this issue, which are in line with scientific theorization in Iranian history.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • Saljuqid
  • Religion
  • intellectuals
  • fatwa
  • political function